The first of the three weeks of the national lockdown has nearly finished, and we hope this finds you all well and healthy.
We understand that the circumstances have imposed challenges and hardships on many of you and observing the news nationally and internationally, we believe that we are only at the beginning of a longer journey until we will reach the end of this pandemic. Rabbi Schell has uploaded a series of daily video messages on our YouTube channel, trying to answer some of the questions you might ask yourself in light of this crisis: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCfFI7bvb1yKllEMFutUri4A/.
Clayton Donnelly, one of our congregants, who lives in Israel, hosts a webinar on coping with the crisis by regaining one’s strength this coming Sunday (5 April at 11h00). Please see the flyer attached hereto for details.
Pesach is only one week away. Together with our sister congregations in South Africa, we have prepared for you several documents and handouts to prepare and celebrate a meaningful Pesach at home. Please see our website http://betdavid.org.za/pesach-in-johannesburg/ for the service schedule and materials – we will keep the page updated. Please find Rabbi Schell’s guide for Pesach 2020 hereand a letter by the SAAPR-Rabbis to all congregants with additional thoughts and ideas for your Pesach here.
The SAAPR (SA Association of Progressive Rabbis) finished the second draft of the new progressive Pesach Haggadah for South Africa. We invite you to open it virtually on your computers and use it for your sederim: https://bit.ly/2wNRDlM . For our Bet David Pesach seder, we will use a shortened version of the Haggadah, Download from here.
Diane, our cheder teacher, has prepared a Chocolate Pesach Seder Haggadah (please send an email to get your copy). If you like to join with your children our ZOOM children’s seder on Sunday, 12 April @ 11h00, please register with Diane (email@example.com).
Last, but not least, we invite all of you to join us again for our Shabbat services. All our services are being streamed on Youtube and on Facebook. For YouTube click here: http://tiny.cc/BD-YouTube and to follow on Facebook here: http://tiny.cc/BD-Facebook
Friday 03 April * Kabbalat Shabbat Service (18h00)
Saturday 04 April * Shabbat morning service (09h30)
Sunday 05 April Strengths Based Discussion Talk with Clayton Donnelly (11h00) Zoom Chat: http://tiny.cc/rxoamz
Based on the famous four questions we ask during the Pesach seder, Ma nishtanah ha-laylah hazeh mikol ha-leilot? – Why is this night of Passover different from all other nights of the year?, we, your rabbis, have asked ourselves in the past few weeks, if and how our Pesach seder will be different this year, compared to all the sederim we had in the past.
With the lockdown in South Africa, we can say, it will be different, very different, but not less meaningful for us and you. Perhaps, because we are able to look at Pesach from a very different perspective this year, we might even find new meaning in the words and rituals that guided so many generations before us in times of joy and challenges.
With the guidelines below, we want to help you to celebrate Pesach in your homes. We invite you to hold your own Pesach seder at home or to join one of us for the sederim we stream from our homes to yours.
Prepare for Pesach:
This day shall be to you one of remembrance: you shall celebrate it as a festival to the Eternal throughout the ages; you shall celebrate it as an institution for all time. Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread; on the very first day you shall remove leaven from your houses, for whoever eats leavened bread from the first day to the seventh day, that person shall be cut off from Israel. …. You shall observe the [Feast of] Unleavened Bread, for on this very day I brought your ranks out of the land of Egypt; you shall observe this day throughout the ages as an institution for all time. In the first month, from the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread until the twenty-first day of the month at evening. No leaven shall be found in your houses for seven days. For whoever eats what is leavened, that person— whether a stranger or a citizen of the country—shall be cut off from the community of Israel. You shall eat nothing leavened; in all your settlements you shall eat unleavened bread. —Exodus 12:14–20
The above verses from the Torah establish the holiday of Passover and command that we should eat matzah and refrain from eating chametz, leavened bread, for seven days. The Rabbis define chametz as five grains—wheat, barley, spelt, rye, and oats—that are exposed to water for more than eighteen minutes.
In a regular year, the entire household is thoroughly cleaned from any products that may contain chametz and often all dishes, pots, and utensils are switched to sets reserved for Passover use. While we usually recommend that all food products containing chametz are used up before the holiday or given to charity, we do not do so this year. Please do not throw any food away. If you have enough food at home for the coming days and weeks, do not go shopping only because you need “Kosher le Pesach” products. We consider that staying at home and by that, potentially saving lives, is of a higher priority.
Depending on how you decide to observe the Kosher for Passover rules, we suggest the following steps to prepare Pesach at home:
Put bread into your freezer or any other place you can store it for the week of Pesach
Oats, Rusks and such should be stored away with other products, not Kosher for Passover and not needed during the 7 days, into one cupboard of your kitchen and sealed (clear tape helps to not open the cupboard accidently.
Even though you might follow the traditional Ashkenazi custom of not eating kitniyot (corn, rice, beans and lentils) on Pesach, we recommend making an exception for this year. Kitniyot are acceptable food, also during Pesach.
Have a Pesach-Putz, meaning a cleaning for Pesach. The key is that spring cleaning is not Passover cleaning. You only need to remove actual edible chametz residue, not dust, and only from places where you could have conceivably put chametz in the first place.
If you use your regular dishes and cutlery, just rinse them an additional time before you use them during Peach. Please don’t use plastic – not because of corona, but because of the environment.
Print your Pesach hagadah (sent to you by email)
What supplies do I need?
Here’s what you’ll need for the Seder:
One is obligated to avoid chametz throughout Passover, but the obligation to eat matzah is limited to fulfilling the rituals of the first/second night seder alone. If you’re alone, three matzahs for the seder will cover you just fine. You should factor in an additional two matzahs per additional participant, as well as some extra for snacking during the meal. You can also make your own Matzah:
Every individual needs to drink four cups of wine or grape juice. If you have small shot glasses at home, a single bottle should just be enough for the seder.
Maror(bitter herbs, typically romaine lettuce and grated horseradish)
Each person needs to have two portions of maror (one eaten alone and one as part of the korech sandwich), each one at least a teaspoon. Preparing two teaspoons per person will have you covered.
Vegetable for dipping (karpas)
Many use celery, radish, or parsley as karpas, but you can also use carrots, onions or potatoes.
Zeroa or “shank bone” The zeroa is not eaten at the Seder. Some use a forearm of a lamb, or else a neck bone, leg of a chicken or an actual shank-bone. Whichever you use, it should be well-roasted. Not only vegetarians have started to substitute it with red beet
Charoset There are many recipes available in the internet, but here is one link to give you an idea:
One hardboiled egg per Seder plate is fine. Some have the custom for all participants to eat an egg during the meal. If this is the case, prepare one for every participant.
A newer addition to seder plates, originated by Suzannah Heschel, the orange represents our need to be inclusive of all who feel marginalised within the Jewish community. One orange per Seder plate is fine. Some have the custom for all participants to eat one orange during the meal. If this is the case, have one for every participant.
The seder plate shows the symbols talked about in the story of Passover as told in the Haggadah. If you don’t have a Seder Plate at home, use a regular plate.
There are two explanations for this: matzah is the food of poor slaves or there was no time for our bread to rise in our hurried escape from Egypt. Three matzot are covered with a cloth and placed under or next to the seder plate.
We dip the greens in salt water. This represents the tears of the Israelites, whose sons were taken from them by the Pharaoh. You may need minimum one bowl so all can easily dip.
Cup of Elijah
A large cup filled with wine is placed in the centre of the table for Elijah.
Cup of Miriam
A modern custom is to fill a cup with water and place it next to the cup of Elijah. Miriam, the prophetess, has many connections to water. She watched over her baby brother Moses as he floated in a reed basket in the Nile and led the women in song after the miracle of the splitting of the sea. A well is said to have followed the Israelites as they travelled through the desert because of Miriam’s faith.
Reclining while eating was a sign of freedom in the ancient world. The Haggadah tells us to recline when we drink the four cups of wine, eat matzah, the Hillel sandwich and the afikomen. Pillows make reclining easier!
Afikomen is the Greek word for dessert. Near the beginning of the seder, the middle of the three matzot is broken and only one part is returned to the plate. The other half is designated as the afikomen, the last thing to be eaten at the meal. There is the tradition of hiding the afikomen during the meal and to ask children to search for it. It is a wonderful tradition, whether that takes the form of a real hiding of the afikomen or an internet wordsearch or a Where’s Waldo?-style picture or a Wikipedia hunt.
In emulation of the ancient priests, ritual hand washing is performed twice during the evening. This may be done at the kitchen sink or with a bowl and pitcher placed near the table.
Eating Chametz during Pesach
We understand that the circumstances may not allow each and everyone to prepare for Pesach as one would do in a regular year. And while we recommend to not eat chametz in the week of Passover, it might be unavoidable to each and every one of you.
While we want to underline that the situation of today is in no way comparable to the curse that our mothers and fathers had to endure during the Shoah, we included the following prayer which can be recited before eating chametz, written or at least dictated by Rabbi Aharon Bernard Davids, leader of the Dutch community of Rotterdam in Holland, for their communities who had been interned first in the Westerbork Holland transit camp and then sent to Bergen Belsen concentration camp:
Before eating Chametz say the following with intent & devotion:
Our Father in Heaven, it is revealed and known to You that it is our desire to fulfil Your will and to celebrate the festival of Passover by eating Matzah and by observing the prohibition of Chametz. But, on this our hearts are pained, that the captivity which prevents us, and we find ourselves in danger of our lives.
We are hereby prepared and ready to fulfil Your commandment “And you shall live by them” and not die by them, and to be careful with the warning of “Guard yourself and guard your life very much.” Therefore, our prayer to You is that You keep us alive, and sustain us, and redeem us speedily, so that we may observe Your laws and fulfil Your will and serve You with a full heart. Amen.
Let all who are hungry come and eat
Last but not least: No seder is complete without honouring the holiday’s essential command: “Let all who are hungry come and eat.”. We understand that we cannot open our doors this year, as we did in the past years, however, we encourage everyone to donate to organisations that are doing vital and lifesaving work amid the crisis – only a fingertip away. Please consider the feeding scheme of your Shul, the local Chevrah Kadisha, Keren be Kavod in Israel, or the initiative of President Ramaphosa:
Many of us know that Passover takes place during the Hebrew month of Nisan. In contrast, most of us do not know that the month of Nisan also includes another observance which begins on the second day of Passover. In ancient times, as set forth in the Book of Leviticus, our ancestors would start bringing a ceremonial measure of barley, called an “omer” to the Temple on each of the 49 days between the 15th of Nisan and Erev Shavuot (the 6th of Sivan). The number 49 has special significance in Jewish tradition because it constitutes a week of weeks (7×7), a significant number in the story of creation and in the beliefs of the Jewish mystics. According to the rabbis of the Talmud, these 49 days also represent the length of the journey from Exodus from Egypt to the giving of the Torah on Mount Sinai.
According to Jewish tradition, the “Counting of the Omer [Hebrew: Sefirat HaOmer ]” represents a spiritual journey from slavery to freedom and from chaos to the giving of the law. In the absence of the Jerusalem Temple, many Jewish communities have sought to imbue the counting of the Omer with daily spiritual significance. We at Bet David have adopted the Kehillah feeding scheme as a way to mark this time in a significant way.
I believe that education is one of the major ways to empower all parts of our society and to fulfil the dream of Nelson Mandela of a better South Africa. However, we have seen that many families still struggle on a daily basis to put food on the table because education is expensive and, too often, after paying the school fees there isn’t enough money left for a decent meal for those learners.
Several years ago, a former student of our own Mitzvah school started a feeding scheme in Alex, in an attempt to combat this situation. By providing one full, hot meal a day for more than 200 children, she managed to take away some of the burden those families have to carry every day.
With each parcel donated, we bring a little bit of healing (Tikkun) into our world. Please support Kehillah also this year generously. May we, on our journey from Pesach to Shavuot, bring some additional light into the world.
Chag Pesach Seamach – Rabbi Adrian M Schell
Bet David Kehillah’s Omer Project
Counting of the Omer begins on Sunday, 21 April for 50 days in support of Kehillah’s Feeding Schemes. Place your name and those of your loved ones on the list to donate one day’s food parcel for only R100 to Kehillah. Sign up on the sheet on the notice board in the Bet David Gallery, or call the shul office. Please EFT to Bet David Sisterhood, Nedbank Sandton Account 1970476214, branch 197005.
At Bet David, we have found an additional way to give meaning to the traditional way of counting of the Omer. When we count the omer, we give 50 days of hope.
I believe that education is one of the major ways to empower all parts of our society and to fulfil the dream of so many for a South Africa with an amazing future. Our Mitzvah school is the living proof of our efforts to implement this dream into reality. However, I have seen that many families still struggle on a daily basis just to put food on the table. Education is unfortunately very expensive and, too often, after paying the school fees there isn’t enough money left for a decent meal for the families and the learners.
Several years ago, a former student of the Mitzvah school started a feeding scheme in Alex to combat this situation. By providing one full hot meal a day for more than 200 children, she managed to take away some of the burden those families have to carry every day.
Bet David’s Kehillah – with the help from many of you – has financed and carried this feeding scheme since its inception. Nevertheless, Kehillah still need your support for this programme. They need the best we can give, our money. Please join me and become a sponsor of one or more food parcels for the feeding scheme.
Add your name and those of your loved ones on the list of supporters. One day’s food parcel has the value of only R100. Sign up sheets can be found in the shul or contact Glynnis during office hours. EFT to Sisterhood, Nedbank Sandton, Account 1970476214, branch 197005, and send your proof of payment to firstname.lastname@example.org.
This coming Shabbat, we have a dramatic haftarah reading from Ezekiel 37:1-14. The prophet shares the vision of dry bones coming to life. What does this vision have to do with Passover, our festival of freedom, our deliverance from slavery? The Haftarah Commentary, by Gunther Plaut, offers the following opinion on the connection between Passover and this prophecy: “The connection of the Shabbat of Pesach and the main body of the haftarah (37:1-14) lies in the theme of Israel’s deliverance: in the Torah it is delivered from slavery: in the haftarah, from death.”
The story of Passover is the celebration of the Exodus from Egypt, yet the story is incomplete without a messianic vision. Ezekiel, preaches to his people who are exiled from Israel, after many have been killed in battle; they are given a vision of the return of the dead to Jerusalem and a restored homeland.
Are there other possible connections to Passover?
One interesting connection is that we end our seder with the song “Chad Gadya”, the so-called “children’s song” that follows the chain of violence and death from one goat to God’s striking the Angel of Death. By this time in the seder, most of us are too tipsy, tired, and full to pay attention to the incredible theological message- masquerading as child’s play, sung in Aramaic. Its message of ultimate redemption echoes in the seder and is fully disclosed in Ezekiel’s prophecy of hope and restoration.
But, was Ezekiel’s prophecy meant to be real or a metaphor? Is it really a description of physical resurrection or spiritual resurrection? And how do we moderns-and particularly we Progressive Jews-find meaning in this?
The prayers for the resurrection of the dead were among the first to be excised from classical Reform prayer books. But our more recent Mishkan T’filah has put the prayer back as an alternative reading. Could it be that the last century, with its extraordinary events, reminded us that “resurrection” is possible?
In our haftarah, Ezekiel will send a shiver down your spine: “Our bones are dried up, our hope is lost (v’avdah tikvateinu), we are cut off [from life]!” These words, written sometime in the sixth century BCE, resonated in the hearts, minds, and pens of our early Zionist dreamers! The rebirth of Israel is probably the most powerful cultural resurrection of the twentieth century. Ezekiel was right, “I will put My breath into you and you shall live, and I will place you in your own land” (Ezekiel 37:14). Recited century after century, this haftarah has changed from a wistful prayer to a clarion call to action.
Wishing you all a very meaningful Pesach
Rabbi Adrian M Schell (Source: Rabbi Naamah Kelman )
A thought on last week’s parasha by Rabbi Yosef Solomon
He shall remove his garments and wear other garments and he shall take out the ashes.” ~ Leviticus 6:4
The first daily Temple-service was the removal of the previous day’s ashes from the Altar. Why did the priest need to change clothes? Sorry budding Kabbalists, no hidden mysticism here and not even a mitzvah! Rather just simple common-sense: since he’s likely to soil his holy garments from the dirty ashes, the priest should change into ‘overalls’. Evidently, certain clothing is unsuitable for specific pursuits. If you dress appropriately for business-meetings or social-functions, why should spiritual ones be any different? The famous proverb “clothes maketh the man” points to the fact that people generally judge others by their external reality. Judaism points in the opposite direction: judge the moment and align your internal reality by dressing accordingly.
Torah Reading Shabbat Chol HaMoed Pesach
Exodus 33:12-34:26 and Numbers 28:19-25
(Plaut 592; Hertz 362)
Haftarah: Ezekiel 37:1-37:14 (P1465 Hertz 1015)
With the reading, we are reminded of the age-old desire to know God. Moses implores God to let him see God. While God will not allow Moses to see God’s face, God tells Moses, “I will make My goodness pass before you…” Perhaps we experience the divine presence through the goodness we create in the world. The Torah then sets forth the thirteen attributes of God, among them that God is compassionate, gracious, slow to anger and abounding in kindness. By emulating these very attributes, we create the goodness which allows us to know God.
The most well-known thing that Jewish people do during Passover is to gather together for a ceremonial festive meal called a seder. The main thing to understand about a seder is that it combines a delicious meal, the telling of the story of the Exodus from Egypt, and a lot of symbolic foods and rituals tied to the Exodus story. Whether you are hosting a seder at your home or you are a guest at someone else’s, a typical seder is set up like a dinner party with a script. There’s a book, called a Haggadah in Hebrew, which contains the ritual order of the meal – traditionally comprised of 15 steps, or ritual units.
History: The seder and the Haggadah were developed by a group of ancient rabbis who lived in the Land of Israel under Greco-Roman cultural influence. They did some cultural borrowing in crafting the Haggadah, using the Greco-Roman concept of a symposium and filling in Jewish content. A symposium was a meal with guests during which an important subject would be discussed and a specific number of cups of wine would be served. The hosts would issue invitations, which would state the topic for the evening’s discussion and the number of cups of wine that would be served. At the beginning of the evening, guests would arrive and be invited to get comfortable – reclining on pillows and cushions and preparing to eat and drink, talk and argue deep into the night. Familiar? Exactly, the seder is our very Jewish version of a symposium:
The Topic: The Exodus from Egypt and freedom, How many cups: 4 cups of wine and lots of food.
Wishing you all a very meaningful Pesach Rabbi Adrian M Schell (Source: ITJ Handout on Pesach)
Torah Reading – Shabbat Hagadol
Leviticus 6:1-8:36 Reading Lev 8:10-36
(Plaut 694; Hertz 436)
Haftarah: Malachi 3:4-3:24 (P1459 Hertz 1005)
In our weekly Torah portion the five sacrifices that the priests are to perform are described. Further, limitations on the consumption of meat are outlined by the Torah.
Our portion concludes with details about the ordination of Aaron and his sons as priests and the preparation of the Tabernacle as a holy place.
Exodus 12:37-42;13:3-10 (Plaut 414) and Numbers 28:16-25 (Plaut 1082)
Haftarah: Isaiah 43:1-15 (P 1462)
Beginning with the second night of Pesach we count the Omer until we arrived in our calendar at Shavuot. To help you with the counting, we have prepared for you a leaflet with a calendar, the blessings and the numbers (COUNTING THE OMER 2017). Traditionally the Omer is counted in the evening, after sunset.
An old saying teaches that we believe what we see, but the reverse is often true: we see what we believe. And what we believe is often coloured by the stories we’ve learned. In less than two weeks, we are going to celebrate Pesach, Passover. The most important mitzvah for Pesach is to share knowledge with the next generation. But why?
When Abraham told the story of one God creating the universe, the idea of history—the belief that we can learn from our past—was created. After all, if there were many gods, as so much of the ancient world believed, what happened yesterday might have no bearing on today, because we might be dealing with a different god. But with one God there could be one plan and one set of rules, so learning from the past—from yesterday, from our parents, or from the lives of our ancestors—became both possible and essential. It is no wonder that the TaNaCh, our Bible, not only records the victories of the Jewish people, like the hieroglyphics do for the Egyptians, but also our failures. We must learn from both. Peoples, nations, cultures, faiths: all have stories that inform their vision and help shape their thinking.
For many Christians, the world is seen through the story of death and resurrection. For many Muslims, through the image of spiritual struggle and war. For Jews, our vision is one of leaving the slavery of the past, wandering through the wilderness of the present, and moving toward the promised land of the future.
Significantly, while so many other peoples speak of “the golden age of the past,” Judaism’s story puts the best of times in the future. It is the Jewish vision that laid the groundwork for the belief in messianic times for so many people of the world. So important is the Jewish belief in the power of stories—and in particular, our Jewish story—that four times in the Bible we are commanded to tell our story to our children, whether or not they ask to hear it.
Our Pesach Haggadah translates this mitzvah into the story of four children—for a good reason. Jewish teaching explains the verse “the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob”—as opposed to “the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob”—as a lesson that each of us must find their own way to connect with the Jewish people, its history and with faith until that “faith relationship” becomes personal. The lesson of the four children teaches us that we must work to understand each individual and hear each question before we respond. Otherwise, we may be providing answers important to ourselves, not those important to our students or children. Our hope is that all our children—every Jew and non-Jew alike—will be connected to our people, our history and our God.
Shabbat Shalom Rabbi Adrian M Schell (Source: Lauren Eichler Berkun)
Torah Reading Shabbat Vayikra
Leviticus 1:1-5:26 Reading Lev 4:1-21
(Plaut 666; Hertz 417)
In our weekly Torah portion God instructs Moses on the five different kinds of sacrifices that were to be offered in the sanctuary: * The olah or “burnt offering” was a voluntary sacrifice that had a high degree of sanctity and was regarded as the “standard” offering.
* The minchah or “meal offering” was a sacrifice made of flour, oil, salt, and frankincense.
* The zevach sh’lamim or “sacrifice of well-being” was a voluntary animal offering from one’s herd, sometimes brought to fulfill a vow.
* The chatat or “sin offering” was an obligatory sacrifice that was offered to expiate unintentional sins.
* And finally the asham or “penalty offering” was an obligatory sacrifice that was required chiefly of one who had misappropriated property.
Each year we sing Dayeinu as part of our Seder, showing our gratitude to God for all the wonders performed to our ancestors as they went free from Egypt. Though the traditional text encompasses over a dozen items for which we give thanks, many modern Haggadot have added even more to that list, mentioning the modern wonders, we can encounter, like the State of Israel.
This, for a good reason, as our list is not complete. We have many things to be thankful for, and we should regularly recount our many blessings – not only during Pesach. Yet, many of us have the feeling that God is somehow absent, and that God has ceased to perform miracles. The feeling, that our prayers for example are falling on deaf ears, is not uncommon, am I right?
In one of my commentary books for Pesach I found the following poem, an anonymous poet has written:
I asked for strength, and God gave me difficulties to make me strong.
I asked for wisdom, and God gave me problems to solve.
I asked for prosperity, and God gave me brawn and brains to work.
I asked for courage, and God gave me dangers to overcome.
I asked for love, and God gave me troubled people to help.
I asked for favors, and God gave me opportunities.
I received nothing I wanted. I received everything I needed.
My prayers were answered.
I like this little poem, because it gives us so much hope and it points in the directions we need to look at, to see the miracles that are surrounding us. Sometimes we are so busy shouting at God, or others, that we oversee the good things they do for us. We simply need to change our perspective, to bear witness to the miracles in the world and in our life, and to recognise that we will never sufficiently be able to thank God for all that has been done for us.
Happy Holidays – Shabbat Shalom and Chag Pesach Sameach
Rabbi Adrian M Schell
Torah Reading for Pesach (Shabbat) 1st Day
Exodus 12:37-42 and 13:3-10 (P 414; H p.259)
Numbers 28:16-28:25 (P 1082; H p.695)
Haftarah: Isaiah 43:1-15 (P 1462)
Torah Reading for 7th Day Pesach
Exodus 14:30-15:21 (P 437; H p.270)
Numbers 28:19-28:25 (P 1083; H p.695)
Haftarah: II Samuel 22:1-51 (P 1467; H p.1017)
Torah Reading for Shabbat Acharei Mot
(Reading Lev. 16:1 – 22; P p.770; H p.480);
Haftarah: Ezekiel 22:1-19 (P 795; H p.494)
Torah Study with Rabbi Schell resumes on Shabbat30.4. at 08h45